Pruning is one of the most ancient of horticultural practices. Old testament writers speak of a coming age of peace, "when men shall beat their swords into plowshares,and their spears into pruning hooks." Christ also referred to the pruning of the vine. It is interesting to note that of all the fruits, few respond to heavy pruning as favorably as the grape vine does.
Most temperate fruits need regular pruning for vigorous growth and good fruit production.
Pruning is a technique of removing dead, disease and unwanted branches, which help in stimulating the flower and fruit bud.
As plants are dormant winter and early spring, this is the best time for pruning deciduous fruit trees.

Technique for pruning of deciduous fruit trees
Bare root fruit trees are usually planted in winter when they are dormant Prune about 1/3 of the branches to compensate for root loss
Most deciduous trees should be pruned every year in winter or early spring, when the trees are still dormant
Remember to use sharp pruning shears
Start pruning by cutting the dead and broken branches
Remove suckers from the base of the tree 
Make a cut close to the bud at about a 30 degree backward angle

Types of pruning:
The open-center
With the open-center, the leader is removed and there is no dominant trunk, leaving an open center. Instead of having a central leader, the open-center tree has three or four main branches This type of system is use in Peaches, Nectarine, Plum, and Apricot tree.
The Central leader
A central leader tree has one main trunk, referred to as the leader, from which other lateral branches develop. This type of system is used in Apple, Pear and sweet cherry trees.
Modified Central leader
This type of system gives importance to center leader and three to five main lateral branches. This type of system can be used in nut,apple and pear trees.

Pruning Subtropical Trees

Most subtropical trees are evergreen, and need  pruning to remove dead, broken and cross over branches. Pruning can be done to control the size of the tree, and to increase fruit production in some of the tropical fruit trees such as guava and phalsa before the spring.